Stockholm, 10 Agustus 2005

 

Bismillaahirrahmaanirrahiim.

Assalamu'alaikum wr wbr.


BIMO MAJUKAN JURUS SCHUMANN YANG KEROPOS UNTUK PERTAHANKAN PEPERA 1969 MODEL JENDERAL SOEHARTO

Ahmad Sudirman

Stockholm - SWEDIA.



KELIHATAN ITU BIMO TEJOKUSUMO MAJUKAN JURUS SCHUMANN YANG KEROPOS UNTUK PERTAHANKAN PEPERA 1969 MODEL JENDERAL SOEHARTO

 

"PEPERA sah dan diakui PBB" (Bimo Tejokusumo, bimo_tejokusumo@yahoo.co.uk , Tue, 9 Aug 2005 18:27:36 +0100 (BST))

 

"New York agreement never mentions One Man One Vote. Instead, New York agreement was made officially to guarantee transparency in Self-Determination by involving the instruments of advice, assistances, participations of UN and International Community. a.PEPERA was to be conducted by democratic means, using the consultative in all regional of Papua. b.The people consultative is divided by: Regions elected directly by people Functional representing political, social, culture, religion Traditional contained of directly elected tribes representatives c.This method must be consulted with people of Papua as mentioned in New York agreement. Based on this idea, UN had declared its readiness to cooperate and participate in conduction of PEPERA. UN had fully involved in process of consultation between government and people of Papua regarding PEPERA." (SCHUMANN VAN CREVELD, PhD, Analyst of Indonesia, Chicago, IL.)

 

Baiklah Bimo Tejokusumo di Malmo, Swedia.

 

Membaca tulisan Schumann van Creveld, Analyst of Indonesia, dari Chicago ini tentang penentuan pendapat rakyat berdasarkan Perjanjian New York 15 Agustus 1962, ternyata banyak kelemahannya. Mengapa ?

 

Karena Creveld beralasan bahwa Perjanjian New York tidak menyebutkan satu orang satu suara untuk melakukan pepera di Papua, sehingga yang dinamakan demokrasi dalam hal pepera Papua adalah melalui musyawarah di semua Kabupaten yang ada di Papua.

 

Disinilah kelemahan argumentasi Creveld dalam usaha mempertahankan penentuan pendapat rakyat Papua 14 Juli 4 Agustus 1969.

 

Kalau diteliti apa yang tertuang dalam Perjanjian New York 15 Agustus 1962 itu sudah jelas dinyatakan secara eksplisit dalam Article XVIII:

 

"Indonesia will make arrangements, with the assistance and participation of the United Nation Representative and his staff, to give the people of the territory the opportunity to exercise freedom of choice. Such arrangements will include: (a) Consultations (Musyawarah) with the representative councils on procedures l and appropriate methods to be followed for ascertaining the freely expressed will of the population; (d) The eligibility of all adults, male and female, not foreign nationals, to participate in the act of self-determination to be carried out in accordance with international practice, who are resident at the time of the signing of the present Agreement and at the time of the act of self-determination, including those residents who departed after 1945 and who return to the territory to resume residence after the termination of Netherlands administration."

 

Berdasarkan Article XVIII dinyatakan secara jelas bahwa Pemerintah Indonesia akan melaksanakan pepera dengan bantuan dan partisipasi dari utusan PBB dan Stafnya untuk memberikan kepada rakyat yang ada di Papua kesempatan menjalankan penentuan pendapat secara bebas. Kemudian melakukan konsultasi dengan Dewan-Dewan Kabupaten yang ada di Papua untuk membicarakan metode pelaksanaan pepera ini. Selanjutnya, seluruh orang dewasa, baik laki-laki atau perempuan memiliki hak pilih untuk berpartisipasi dalam penentuan nasib sendiri yang akan dijalankan sesuai dengan aturan internasional. Dimana mereka yang punya hak pilih itu adalah mereka yang tinggal di Papua saat Perjanjian New York ditandatangani dan mereka yang berada di Papua ketika pepera dilaksanakan, termasuk mereka penduduk Papua yang meninggalkan Papua setelah 1945 dan kembali ke Papua dan menguruskan kembali kependudukannya setelah berakhirnya pemerintahan Belanda.

 

Nah, ternyata dalam pelaksanaannya, pihak RI mengawali dengan melakukan konsultasi dengan Dewan-Dewan Kabupaten di Jayapura tentang tatacara penyelenggaraan Pepera pada tanggal 24 Maret 1969. Kemudian diputuskan membentuk Dewan Musyawarah Pepera dengan anggota yang berjumlah 1026 anggota dari delapan kabupaten, yang terdiri dari 983 pria dan 43 wanita.

 

Yang menjadi pertanyaan sekarang adalah dengan cara bagaimana anggota-anggota yang duduk di Dewan Musyawarah Pepera ini dipilih ? Apakah melalui cara pemilihan umum, dimana setiap rakyat di seluruh Papua yang terdiri dari delapan Kabupaten saat itu serentak melakukan pemilu untuk memilih wakil-wakil mereka dari setiap Kabupaten untuk duduk dalam Dewan Musyawarah Pepera ?. Sebagaimana yang pernah dilakukan ketika Pemilu tahun 1955 yang bebas dan rahasia untuk memilih anggota-anggota Konstituante dan DPR.

 

Ternyata tidak ada dokumen yang menyatakan bahwa diseluruh Papua dilakukan pemilihan umum yang bebas dan rahasia untuk memilih wakil-wakil dari setiap Kabupaten guna didudukkan dalam Dewan Musyawarah Pepera. Yang ada hanya disebutkan bahwa pada bulan Juni 1969 berakhir pemilihan anggota Dewan Musyawarah Pepera yang berjumlah 1026 anggota itu.

 

Nah, caranya tidak disebutkan, apakah main tunjuk langsung, atau main pilih begitu saja. Tidak ada fakta dan buktinya yang jelas dari setiap Kabupaten yang ada di Papua.

 

Sampai disini saja, sekarang sudah bisa diketahui bahwa cara pelaksanaan penentuan anggota-anggota Dewan Musyawarah Pepera ini saja masih dipertanyakan keabsahan, kebebasan dan kerahasiaannya.

 

Karena kalau mendasarkan kepada dasar hukum Perjanjian New York Article XVIII bagian (d) itu seluruh orang dewasa, baik laki-laki atau perempuan yang memiliki hak pilih untuk berpartisipasi dalam penentuan nasib sendiri yang akan dijalankan sesuai dengan aturan internasional. Dimana baik mereka yang tinggal di Papua atau mereka yang meninggalkan Papua setelah 1945 tetapi telah kembali ke Papua setelah berakhirnya pemerintahan Belanda harus disertakan dalam proses penentuan pendapat yang bebas dan rahasia ini. Tetapi, kenyataannya tidak. Yang muncul hanya pada bulan Juni 1969 berakhir pemilihan anggota Dewan Musyawarah Pepera yang berjumlah 1026 anggota.

 

Celakanya lagi, bahwa ketika dilakukannya pepera itu sendiri, yang dilaksanakan per Kabupaten, dimulai di Merauke pada tanggal 14 Juli 1969 dan di akhiri di Jayapura pada tanggal 4 Agustus 1969.

 

Dimana cara pepera ini tidak menunjukkan cara bebas dan rahasia. Melainkan seperti melakukan debat dan diskusi dalam sidang DPR saja. Misalnya ketika diadakan pepera di Kabupaten Pegunungan Jayawijaya, itu caranya para wakil-wakil (128 orang melihat proporsi jumlah anggota Dewan Musyawarah dibagi 8 Kabupaten) yang sudah ditunjuk untuk duduk dalam Dewan Musyawarah pepera melakukan Sidang Dewan Musyawarah pepera di Kabupaten Pegunungan Jayawijaya yang diselenggarakan pada tanggal 16 Juli 1969.

 

Nah, wakil-wakil yang jumlahnya (128 orang) ini yang menjalankan Sidang Dewan Musyawarah pepera di Kabupaten Pegunungan Jayawijaya dengan disaksikan oleh pihak RI dan PBB tanpa ada rahasia.

 

Sekarang, yang dipertanyakan adalah apakah cara pepera model Sidang Dewan Musyawarah pepera per Kabupaten yang tidak mencerminkan kebebasan dan kerahasiaan itu yang dimaksudkan oleh Perjanjian New York "to give the people of the territory the opportunity to exercise freedom of choice" ?

 

Jelas, jawabannya adalah tidak benar.

 

Yang benar adalah, kalau pelaksanaan exercise freedom of choice bagi seluruh rakyat Papua yang dewasa baik laki-laki ataupun perempuan dilakukan secara serentak diseluruh Kabupaten yang ada di Papua untuk memilih dua pilihan yaitu Ya ikut RI atau Keluar dari RI.

 

Tidak perlu melakukan dua tahap, seperti yang dilakukan oleh pepera model Jenderal Soeharto. Yang pelaksanaannya masih dipertanyakan keabsahan, kebebasan dan kerahasiaannya.

 

Jadi, dengan alasan ini apa yang dilambungkan oleh Schumann van Creveld adalah telah menyimpang dari isi Perjanjian New York 15 Agustus 1962 dan sekaligus tidak mencerminkan freedom of choice sebagaimana yang telah diakui dalam aturan internasional, yaitu satu orang satu suara. Contohnya tentang pemilihan umum yang bebas dan rahasia. Ataupun cara plebisit, atau juga cara referendum yang bebas dan rahasia dan diikuti oleh seluruh rakyat.

 

Bagi yang ada minat untuk menanggapi silahkan tujukan atau cc kan kepada ahmad@dataphone.se agar supaya sampai kepada saya dan bagi yang ada waktu untuk membaca tulisan-tulisan saya yang telah lalu yang menyinggung tentang Khilafah Islam dan Undang Undang Madinah silahkan lihat di kumpulan artikel di HP http://www.dataphone.se/~ahmad


Hanya kepada Allah kita memohon pertolongan dan hanya kepada Allah kita memohon petunjuk, amin *.*


Wassalam.


Ahmad Sudirman


http://www.dataphone.se/~ahmad

ahmad@dataphone.se

----------

 

Date: Tue, 9 Aug 2005 18:27:36 +0100 (BST)

From:  "bimo tejokusumo" bimo_tejokusumo@yahoo.co.uk

Subject: PEPERA sah dan diakui PBB

To:  ardiali@yahoo.com,  allindo@yahoo.com, albiruny@gmail.com,  aulialailil@yahoo.com, afoe@tegal.indo.net.id, azis@ksei.co.id,  alasytar_acheh@yahoo.com

 

PEPERA sah dan diakui PBB

 

Bimo Tejokusumo

 

bimo_tejokusumo@yahoo.co.uk

Malmo, Swedia 

----------

 

PEPERA / ACT OF FREE CHOICE IN PAPUA.

SCHUMANN VAN CREVELD, PhD

Analyst of Indonesia, Chicago, IL.

 

 I Chronology of Free of Act choice / 1969 in Papua

Act of Free choice / Act of Self-Determination, known as PEPERA in Indonesia has widely been regarded as legitimate and historic democratic process in the history of Indonesia. Indonesia, officially known as the Unitary State of Indonesia. Once Indonesia was the colony of Dutch. The independence proclaimed on August 17 August 1945 bringing the dispute of Papua (or West New Guinea or Irian Jaya) territory. This territory once was used to be a part of Indonesia (based on Dutch document, Papua was the part of Mollucas territory). Finally the agreement was reached when Indonesian government and Dutch government agreed to conduct PEPERA in 1969 as the result of New York Agreement, 1962. The conduction and result of PEPERA had been done together with UN and endorsed by UN with Resolution 2504 (XXIV). It then was followed by the condition of integration of Papua with Indonesia.

 

A. The chronology of Act of Free choice / PEPERA is as follows:

 

1828: West Papua was the part of Dutch colony since 1828

1949: Dutch admitted the Indonesian independence in 1949, instead of 1945

1949 (November): Indonesian and Dutch government agreed to answer the question of political status of Papua through later negotiations.

1954: After 5 years, there was no progress from Dutch regarding the Papua Indonesia appealed to UN in 1954.

1954: UN Secretary General, U-Thant appointed US Ambassador Elsworth Bunker as mediator between Indonesian and Dutch government.

1962, 15 August: Finally agreement was reached. Both nations agreed to sign the so-called New York Agreement on 15 August 1962. Indonesia was represented by Subandrio, while Dutch by Dutch Ambassador for UN, Van Roijen and Schurmann.

1962, 21 September: The agreement of New York was officially listed with resolution number 1752-about New York agreement-21 September 1962.

 

The agreement was monitored internationally and officially by UN, International Community and US government.

 

The New York agreement contained 29 chapters with 3 main contents:

Transfer of administration from Dutch to UN (Ch 2- 11)

Transfer of administration from UN to Indonesia (Ch 12-13)

Self-Determination (Ch 14-21)

 

The execution of UN to Papua was done by UNTEA.

Dutch surrendered Papua to UN on 1 October 1962.

1962, 1 October - 1963, 1 May: 2 sequences of replacing Dutch officers with non-Dutch officers.

 

B. The Legality and UN-officially full standard of Self-Determination (PEPERA) Based on New York agreement, after complete replacement, the self > determination will be executed. The guiding of self-determination is as follows:

 

a. The execution of self-determination must be under / accompanied by advice, assistance and participating of UN.

b. The procedures must be negotiated with municipal representatives

c. The conduct must fulfill international practice benchmark

d. UN and Indonesia must report the execution to GA of UN

e. Indonesia and Dutch must obey and subjected to the result of PEPERA

 

New York agreement never mentions One Man One Vote. Instead, New York agreement was made officially to guarantee transparency in Self-Determination by involving the instruments of advice, assistances, participations of UN and International Community. Then, also by the official reports to GA of UN.

 

In order to conduct the legality and mandate given to UN, UN had appointed UN Ambassador from Bolivia, Fernando Ortiz Sanz. 1968, 12 August: The arrival of UN Ambassador from Bolivia, Fernando Ortiz Sanz to provide advice, assistance, participation, and reports of self-determination conduction.

1968, 22 August: The opening of UN Representative in Jayapura 1969, 4 August: The closing of UN Representative in Jayapura

 

C. Important Notices regarding the dispute of PEPERA legality:

 

The New York agreement never specifically mentioned of procedures and ways to conduct the self-determination. Therefore the procedures and ways were conducted according the

Condition by that time. The condition was considered from the dimensions of social development, economy, culture, and geography. The New York agreement did not oblige the system of one man one vote. There is no any international documents in international law obliging the self-determination by one man one vote system. In order to determine the best way to conduct self-determination in Papua, Indonesia had discussed with UN in Jakarta and New York. Based on that negotiation, Indonesia had sent the official letter to Ambassador

Fernando Ortiz Sanz by 18 February 1969 regarding the ideas about conduction of PEPERA

 

a.PEPERA was to be conducted by democratic means, using the consultative in all regional of Papua.

b.The people consultative is divided by:

Regions elected directly by people

Functional representing political, social, culture, religion

Traditional contained of directly elected tribes representatives

c.This method must be consulted with people of Papua as mentioned in New York agreement. Based on this idea, UN had declared its readiness to cooperate and participate in conduction of PEPERA. UN had fully involved in process of consultation between government and people of Papua regarding PEPERA.

 

Finally this method was decided as the best method in conduction of  PEPERA. The Djakarta Times / 26 February 1969 issued the headline "UN and the  Netherlands approve Indonesian Policy on Act of Free Choice. It means The UN and Dutch Government have approved the policy of Indonesian government on the act of free choice in West Irian by way of consultations and not by  the one-man-one vote system.

 

Based on that, PEPERA was done by representatives system. During the PEPERA from 14 July - 2 August 1969, Vice Secretary General of UN had participated actively as stipulated by New York agreement. Before the General Assembly of UN, he declared that: "The petitions opposing annexation to Indonesia.. Show that without doubt certain elements of the population of West Irian held firm convictions in favour of independence. Nevertheless the answer given by consultative assemblies to the questions put to them was a unanimous consensus in favor of remaining with Indonesia Finally on the basis of the facts presented in this report and the documents referred to, it can be stated that with the limitations imposed by geographical characteristics of the territory and the general political situations in the area, an act of free choice has taken place in West Irian in accordance with Indonesian practice, in which the representatives of  the population have expressed their wish to remain with Indonesia.

 

Finally GA of UN / 19 November 1969 had accepted resolution (XXIV). Then the GA  endorsed the conduction of PEPERA in Irian Jaya as agreed in New York agreement. The resolution is:...Bearing in the mind that, in accordance with article XX1 paragraph 2 both parties to the agreement have recognized these results and abide by them Takes not of the report of the secretary general and acknowledges with appreciation the fulfillment by the secretary general and his representative of the tasks entrusted to them under the agreement of 15 August 1962 between Republic of Indonesia and Kingdom of the Netherlands concerning West NewGuinea (West Irian)

----------